Stagira, Macedonian Kingdom, 384. C.-Chalcis, Macedonian Kingdom, 322. C.

Aristotle was a Greek philosopher who, along with Socrates and Plato, formed the basis of Western philosophy. He made significant contributions in various fields of study including biology, ethics, metaphysics, and Zoology and was introduced into various topics such as politics, the movements of the planets and animal behavior. In fact, he made the earliest studies of logic and science.

At 17 he joined Plato’s Academy, although several theories refuted this. Aristotle did not believe in worlds beyond the perceived, and thought that knowledge is the acquisition and development of all things that are obtained from the real world, as perceived.

After the death of Plato, he spent about five years on the coast of Asia Minor, doing research on marine biology. Philip II of Macedonia then entrusted him with the education of his son, the future Alexander the Great, which helped him acquire a high esteem and many compensations from the monarch.

In 335. B.C. he returned to Athens and founded his own school: the Lyceum. The institution attracted students from all over who were called “Peripatetics” and he gathered a large collection of manuscripts, thus forming one of the first libraries in the world.

Of the approximately 200 works of Aristotle only 31 have lasted. His writings covered scientific observations, systematic work and dialogues. One of his major works was Organon, a set of useful tools written to provide logic for use in scientific research.

Aristotle helped to develop the theory of the four elements (water, earth, air and fire) and related them to the humors: phlegm, blood, yellow bile and black bile. He said that man is a rational animal and shared the theory of the just medium. In the area of philosophy, his syllogisms were famous, which he explains in his text Prior Analytics (Analytica priora) as a way of imagined learning as an universal process based on reasoning deduction.

The very extensive work of Aristotle influenced subsequent scientific studies. In Arabic philosophy, he was known as the “first teacher”.